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are more straightforward to perform with this instrument than with other instruments and methodological approaches. One of these methodologies is Problem Based Learning (PBL) (Bache & Hayton, 2012). We begin by drawing upon the available literature to identify four characteristics of teacher talk likely to support student learning about the epistemology of science: making appropriate statements about the epistemology of science in the classroom, linking the epistemology of science with specific science concepts, stating and justifying learning aims, and working with students’ ideas. Instead, we advocate trying to bridge the gap between the two methods because they can also complement each other in providing valuable information about the complex aspects of NOS conceptions through their different approaches to seeking evidence. In response to the criticisms of quantitative instruments to cope with the challenges of assessment in NOS research and to faithfully represent the respondents' conceptions, the present study uses an instrument that is empirically developed (largely avoiding the immaculate perception) and based on a multiple-rating response model, which eludes forced choice (Vázquez & Manassero, 1999). Many empirical studies using different methods and instruments have consistently found a broad collection of deficits in epistemology views. The instrument explicitly shows all the items, explains the method to obtain the scores, the interpretations of the scores, and its theoretical foundations. Recently however, some studies have started to use larger samples tied to applications of VOSTS-related instruments (e.g. Overall, 81% of the data acquisition methods are qualitative, indicating the prevalence of the qualitative over the quantitative approach in current NOS research. After 1990s, some studies were done different perspective from previous research about epistemology, personal epistemology, and epistemological beliefs (Schommer, 1990; Hofer & Pintrich, … They hold mythical conceptions about science, which reject the theory-laden, tentativeness and differences between scientific theories, laws, and hypotheses, and the status of scientific method(s), inference, observation, and empirical evidence (e.g., Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000; Celik & Bayrakçeken, 2006; García-Carmona, Vázquez & Manassero, 2011; Lederman, 2007). Other common criticisms refer to the scoring procedures, the underlying dimensionality of the models, the representativeness of the scores and the reliability statistics. to classify individuals (this is also a problem in qualitative research). NOS Typically, NOS refers to the epistemology and sociology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to scientific knowledge and its development (Lederman, 1992). Dogan & Abd-El-Khalick, 2008). We have elevated this focus to the status of a strand for several reasons. Over the last three decades, the whole project of epistemology has been subjected to criticism and change. Harvey Lederman Contact Information Department of Philosophy 646-427-0253 Princeton University harvey.lederman@princeton.edu Princeton, NJ 08544 Website Areas of Interest AOS: Philosophical Logic, Epistemology, Wang Yangming AOC: Chinese Philosophy, Aristotle, Game Theory, Decision Theory Employment Princeton University, Princeton, NJ The researchers' perspective (philosophical preferences, biases and prejudices) of instrument construction may restrict its validity; for example, the adoption of cluster labels (relativist, constructivist, empiricist, etc.) On the one hand, it presents a new methodological approach to evaluate epistemological conceptions which advances NOS research allowing specific comparisons and hypothesis testing. stated that “NOS refers to the epistemology and sociology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to scientific knowledge and its development” (p. 498). Operationally this includes, an individual’s beliefs about, how scientific knowledge is con- Recent evaluation instrumentsScience education research needs standardized, valid and reliable instruments to evaluate NOS for diverse reasons: to provide trustworthy common grounds for research results and to foster NOS teaching, providing practical tools for teachers (Chen, 2006; Lederman, 2007). Standardization is especially well suited to compare individual profiles of respondents' NOS conceptions, which facilitate researcher and teachers’ evaluations of students, thus fostering the progress of NOS research and teaching. Contributions of a quantitative assessment methodology. Date Written: October 2, 2013. The immaculate perception hypothesis (the implicit assumption that researcher and respondents perceive and understand the items in the same way) may severely affect the validity of investigator-designed instruments (Aikenhead, Fleming & Ryan, 1987; Lederman & O'Malley, 1990; Lederman, 2007). The phrase "nature of science" typically refers to the epistemology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to the development of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 1992). The Nature of Science as the global framework for epistemology in Science Education There is some controversy about the most suitable NOS contents to include in the curriculum at the pre-college level, though different scholarly proposals do share some coincidences. Science teachers' understanding of epistemology unfortunately reflects similar naïve patterns to those observed in students. China University of Political Science and Law. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 10 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 595.2 841.8] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Philosophy of science studies both the history and methods used to obtain scientific knowledge. NOS issues have been adopted as curriculum content in the reforms of science education around the world, and consequently, NOS topics should also be a part of science teacher education (Eurydice, 2011; Next Generation Science Standard [NGSS], 2013). What constitutes a sophisticated understanding of NOS, or epistemology of science? Science was knowledge that was deduced from self-evident principles, and theology was knowledge that received its principles from God, the source of all principles. Most diagnostic studies of conceptions have been performed using small, or convenience, samples of science participants. For instance, the controversial features of most epistemological topics make it difficult to devise valid methods and instruments for their evaluation.  Furthermore, an underlying problem of epistemology and NOS research is the incommensurability of the studies, either because the methods and instruments are quite different, or because of the qualitative nature of results. Second, what are the Panamanian student and teachers’ conceptions on the epistemology of science? A simple approach characterizes NOS as a human way of gaining valid knowledge that is practised by a special community of professionals called scientists, who work under certain values and epistemological assumptions. Standardized instruments would facilitate teachers’ evaluation tasks in the classroom, and consequently, are likely to stimulate teachers to incorporate NOS teaching into curricula, as their reluctance to teach NOS explicitly is partially due to the lack of evaluation instruments (Lederman, 2007). Science education research needs standardized, valid and reliable instruments to evaluate NOS for diverse reasons: to provide trustworthy common grounds for research results and to foster NOS teaching, providing practical tools for teachers (Chen, 2006; Lederman, 2007). involved in scientific practices, which depict science as a human activity aimed at gaining valid knowledge.  Scholars do not agree on a precise definition or delimitation of the NOS field, which is acknowledged as complex, controversial, multifaceted, and changing over time, although these disagreements do not impede researching or teaching NOS issues (Erduran & Dagher, 2014; Matthews, 2012). The numerous methods and instruments basically fall into two broad categories: qualitative (case studies, participant observation, interviews, open questionnaires, content analysis of lesson plans and classroom documents, concept maps, discourse analysis, etc.) Instead, in responding to the crucial role of NOS in scientific literacy, students should be able to understand how science works, and hence, to have a more solid foundation on which to base their future decision making in personal and social settings. NOS refers to the values, suppositions, scientific practices, community, society, and technology, etc. Some additional questionnaires are listed in the table of Appendix A. The National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) and Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993) clearly Science issuesinpropo-sitional outputs that we seek to support with sufficient evidence that they are worthy of belief. The importance of NOS for science education stems from being considered a core content of scientific literacy. In this framework, and in light of some criticisms of the VNOS questionnaire (Lederman et al., 2002), Allchin (2011) recently argued for applying the criteria of authentic evaluation to NOS conceptions, highlighting the complexities of teaching and evaluating NOS. This reflection intends to redress an apparent imbalance in research between qualitative and quantitative methods because the greater criticisms of the latter may be hindering them (Guerra-Ramos, 2012). Thus, accurate individual profiles are relatively incomparable, beyond broad stereotyped results on the poverty of students' and teachers' epistemological and NOS conceptions.  When using the same qualitative instrument (e.g. Our vision of K-8 science features this understanding as one of the four strands. French philosophers then gave the term épistémologie a narrower meaning as philosophy of science. Furthermore, the results are broadly coherent across methods, countries and age groups, confirming the importance of the problem (Lederman, 2007; García-Carmona, Vázquez & Manassero, 2012). Today, science education literature usually considers the epistemology of science under the NOS umbrella or, even more precisely, the nature of scientific knowledge (Lederman, 2007). Open-ended instruments, on the contrary, require idiosyncratic, expensive, tedious and slow processes that are managed by scholars. science can be communicated to K-12 students (Lederman & Mess, 1997). ), NOS embodies knowledge "about" science (Osborne, Collins, Ratcliffe, Millar & Duschl, 2003). Overlap and distinction between NOS, epistemology, and authentic science inquiry Nature of science. The standardized instrument provides researchers with a tool to delve deeper into the statistical analysis of data (group comparisons, time series, individual profiles, test-retest follow-up, correlation methods, strengths and weaknesses, inconsistencies and consistencies, etc. Lederman (2007) displays a huge list of instruments for the period 1954-1992, although for recent years, he just refers to the five-form VNOS, the 114-item Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) (Aikenhead & Ryan, 1992) and the Critical Incidents Scale (Nott & Wellington, 1995). Standardized instruments would provide researchers with common grounds, which could make it possible to compare research findings from different studies, groups and countries. (2006) studied non-science students, and Liu and Tsai (2008) compared arts and science graduate students (including an initial teacher education group). %���� (1998). 1 0 obj Evaluation of epistemology conceptions within the Nature of Science framework 2. These characterizations nevertheless remain general, and philosophers, In the latter, the two groups were generally not found to differ from each other, although the science students displayed less sophisticated beliefs (i.e., about the cultural dependency of scientific theories), and the science teacher education students scored lowest on all dimensions. Richard Feynman wrote, “It is whether or not the theory gives predictions that agree with experiment. Epistemology of science Epistemology of science, how one understands the nature of knowledge and knowing in science, has always been an important part of science education (Elby, Macrander, & Hammer, 2016; Lederman, Antink, & Bartos, 2014). <> Further, Holbrook et al. Most of the recent science education research on these interdisciplinary issues (including epistemology issues) has been labelled "nature of science" (NOS), which embraces a variety of areas related to the nature of scientific knowledge (epistemology of science, science community, the relationships between science, technology and society, socio-scientific issues), and many other related topics concerning their effective teaching and learning, methods, NOS teaching materials, evaluation of students' and teachers' conceptions, theoretical matters, teacher training, etc. Framework 2.1. This complementary approach to the qualitative/quantitative evaluation instrumentation has also been initiated from the qualitative facet through the work of Brunner, Summers, Myers and Abd-El-Khalick (2016), who try to quantify the responses of the most widely used qualitative evaluation tool (VNOS). NOS typically refers to the epistemology of science, science as a way of knowing, or the values and beliefs inherent to scientific knowledge and its development (Lederman, 1992). This paper focuses on the evaluation of epistemological conceptions, crossing various concerns of NOS research, teaching and learning.

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