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stake testing to raise academic achievement, the call for an enhanced instructional supervision should be addressed. Supervision of instruction is designed to meet this developmental need in order to maintain effective education and provide sufficient resources for teachers. practices and procedures that could result in the enhancement of student teaching (Fischer, 1995). The sample for the study was 133 principals of government own secondary schools, selected on the basis Supervision in schools is very important and as a result only those teachers, who are investigated challenges to secondary school principals’ leadership in government own secondary schools in the areas of instructional supervision and provision of funds. According to Fischer (1995), supervision of instruction involves: teacher evaluation, assessing pupil progress, analyzing instructional strategies, planning, preparing and presenting the lesson and conducting practice sessions. Instructional and supervision processes must link up with institutional academic programs plans. The multifaceted challenges involved in leading such an initiative are discussed for each phase, together with Supervision and instructional process are mutually at work to improve the academic performance of students because without supervision, educational administrators will fail in their task of maintaining standard and qualitative education. Clinical supervision provides specific training on clinical skills including: assessment, diagnosis, treatment, termination, and ethical practice standards. obstacles to effective instructional supervision in public primary schools in mbooni division, mbooni west district, kenya by charles kiamba john There is an urgent need for an instructional supervision that encourages adherence to the prescribed curriculum standards and teaching to standards in order to ensure higher pupils/ student academic performance. Supervisors will either rise to the challenge of effective leadership or find that their functions have been taken over by other individuals or agencies. was irrelevant to their practice. “…The cornerstone of effective supervision is caring and progressively collaborative The purpose of the study was to assess practices and challenges of instructional supervision in Government secondary schools of Nefas Silk Lafto Sub city in Addis Ababa City Administration and recommending possible solutions To conduct the study, descriptive survey design was employed and different sampling technique was employed to select the sample schools and teachers. (d) Policy contexts that place teacher supervision and evaluation practice within a broader conception of overall instructional leadership are beneficial. To this end, … Clinical supervision is recognized as different than non-clinical supervision by the Principals therefore ought to give instructional supervision special place in their discharge of duties. Eighteen months later they were using the data to target their instruction more precisely and to test the effectiveness of their teaching practice and make refinements to their programs. Instructional Supervision: Issues and Trends Glenys G. Unruh In the field of instructional supervision we may have arrived at a critical moment in history. Clinical supervision is an area of specialization in clinical social work practice (ABCECSW, 2004, p. 2). Instructional supervision requires that principals focus mainly on the teaching staff who implement curriculum directly through instruction.

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